Make A Core Investment This Holiday Season

Wow! The holidays are upon us once again. I hope that you are feeling awesome. If not, then WHY? The purpose of this newsletter is to share as much as I can in order to get you feeling as awesome as possible.

I want to share with you what my staff and I have learned to improve your experience at OrthoWell and to remind you how awesome you CAN feel. Read on and let’s get you back on track.

HOW TO MAKE A CORE INVESTMENT
To get the best return on your investment, you want to make sure that when you go to the gym you are doing the exercises that will be most effective.
We often find that people haven’t been doing the most effective core stability exercises, or they have been doing them with incorrect form. Check out this video blog post about how to properly engage your core.

 


HAPPY HOLIDAYS!

Are you looking for a way to help those in need this holiday season?

Here’s how we can do it if we work together.

As a way of serving our community, OrthoWell Physical Therapy will be donating $10 for each new patient that comes through our doors through the end of 2015 to either of two awesome organizations in Beverly called Beverly Bootstraps or in Amesbury called Our Neighbors Table.

You can check out the videos on our Beverly Facebook page or our NBPT Facebook page. So come on in for a physical therapy evaluation or spread the word about our holiday initiative.

Let’s do this together!


Help us Celebrate Our 1 Year Anniversary 
in Newburyport
 
Wow! This past year just flew by. We have had a great start in Newburyport thanks to ALL of you. As a thank you we would like to extend a special discount on the purchase of one of our maintenance packages.
You can try get one of the following: Laser, Dry Needling or our Wellness Maintenance packages at a 15% Discount thru the end of this year!
You can also purchase these packages for a loved one if you want!  Tis’ the season.   Just let us know by calling 978-522-4199!  And THANK YOU once again for your patronage!

TEAMWORK GETS YOU BETTER…FASTER
I have been coordinating services with local chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists and getting amazing results!
My goal is to improve the way that we collaborate and the way that we coordinate services with each of our patients. I have seen incredible results when we ALL work  together. Why wait to start PT or chiropractic if we can get you better…faster as a team. This means better communication and better results.
Please let me know if you are using another practitioner that you think would be a great addition to our TEAM approach.

Our Commitment to YOU
by Mark Johnson,PT at OrthoWell
 
 I have been treating patients for 1.5 years following completing my Doctorate of Physical Therapy degree from the University of New England.  I have been here at OrthoWell for almost 6 months and I cannot believe how much I have grown as a physical therapist in an environment committed to education and evidenced based practice.

Over the past several months I have been noticing a trend of increased number of patients complaining of neck pain which has sparked my interest to participate in continuing education focused on neck pain in order to get the best results for my patients.  I recently completed a 16 hour course focused on cervical (neck) pathology at the Institute of Manual Therapy where I was able to refine my skills and apply new knowledge to all of my patient with neck pain.

 

So if you or someone you know is suffering from neck pain because life can certainly be a “pain in the neck”, then come on in. You are always guaranteed the most up-to-date, comprehensive and holistic physical therapy at OrthoWell.

SUCCESS STARTS HERE!
Check out what a recent Beverly patient said about his care here at OrthoWell:

“OrthoWell PT has given me my life back, no doubt! After 3 months of knee pain with every step I took, I feared for my job as a nurse and my normally active lifestyle was severely curtailed. Surgery was an option, but without guarantee for improvement.

After just one session of PT and 1 laser treatment i was able to walk without limping. After 1 month of therapy and new orthotics, I am closing in on 100% return of function and I am thrilled with the progress.

The holistic approach used by Chris and his team is unique compared to other PT experiences I have had. I highly recommend OrthoWell PT as the best option out there!”

Doris Bailey-Jones


WALL OF FAME
We are starting a Wall of Fame at each of our clinics. We are proud of our patients and the success that they have had.  If you have previously provided us with a testimonial, we would love to take your picture with your therapist and hang it with your testimonial for display it in our clinic!  Seeing is believing!
Give us a call and we’ll schedule a time to take your photo so you can be one of the first patient success stories on our Wall of Fame!

Sincerely,
Chris

Chris Dukarski
OrthoWell Physical Therapy
(978) 522-4199
info@orthowellpt.com

Breathing from your Core-The Missing Link?

It may sound like a strange question but “do you breathe properly?”  Breathing pattern disorders (BPD) are surprisingly common in the general population.  They remain commonly under-recognized by health care professionals and can contribute to pain, fatigue, and dysfunctions in the lumbopelvic region i.e. your CORE!

Core activation remains a hot topic in physical therapy. The problem is that there is not a universally accepted strategy to achieve optimal stability. A decade ago, we started using the “abdominal hallowing” technique which I have talked about before. The abdominal hallowing was an attempt to isolate a key core muscle called the transversus abdominis in which you would “pull your navel in and hallow out your abdoman”. The original work done by Hodges and colleagues on the transversus abdominis also demonstrated simultaneous activation of the diaphragm muscle. The diaphragm, however, took a back seat and has often been ignored during core training. So how do we correct your BPD and “wake up” your diaphragm?

Your diaphragm is attached to your lower ribcage, thoracic wall, and lumbar vertebrae. When you breathe, the diaphragm contracts and pushes DOWN into the abdominal cavity. This movement causes a pressure change which draws air into the lungs. As a result of the contraction, intra-abdominal pressure increases and lumbar spine stiffness, hence stability, also increases.  The diaphragm acts in coordination with the abdominal muscles, spinal muscles, and pelvic floor to create lumbar stability in all directions.  This is what some refer to as “360 degree of stiffness.” The contraction of the diaphragm creates core stability from the inside-out. When you perform an abdominal hallowing or abdominal bracing you create stability from the outside-in. Professor Kolar and colleages performed two MRI studies of the diaphragm and showed that the diaphragm can perform dual functions of inspiration and stabilization simultaneously! The activation of the diaphragm was shown to vary greatly among individuals. This variability may be the reason why one person can resolve low back pain and another cannot.

Lets take a look at HOW you can activate your diaphragm while breathing and HOW you can enhance the benefit of your core stability exercises. Check out the video below.

Low Back Pain – Part 3 – BEST Evidence-Based Core Exercises!

So what are the BEST evidence-based Core exercises?  

Evidence from random controlled trials of people suffering from low back pain show that core stabilization exercises result in significant improvements in pain and function(5,7) . However, the most effective combination of which muscles to target and which stabilization methods to utilize are still debated(1-11).  One technique that has been suggested is abdominal hallowing or “drawing-in” your navel to activate the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle.  This technique has been shown to increase the cross-sectional area of the TrA(10), however, many exercise scientists are now advocating a method called “abdominal bracing”(demonstrated in my last post) in which ALL the abdominal muscles are recruited instead of just one(11). It should be the goal of core exercises to activate as many torso muscles as possible in order to ensure spinal stability and to prepare our bodies for the dynamic and often complex movements that occur during our daily activities.  So what does the research say about which exercises activate which muscles the best?

Numerous studies have used EMG to determine the greatest electrical activity of torso muscles during various core stabilization exercises.  In Escamilla et al(3), they used surface or skin electrodes to compare exercises such as traditional crunches, sit-ups, reverse crunches, and hanging knee-ups using straps to exercises using an Ab Roller/ Power Wheel and a device called the Ab Revolutionizer. What they found was that the activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominis(the “washboard” muscle) as well as both the internal and external obliques was the greatest with Power Wheel roll-outs and hanging knee-ups with straps.  Because research indicates that the internal obliques are activated in the same manner(within 15%)  as the tranversus abdominis(3), we can assume that these results apply to the TrA as well. The activation was least with a traditional sit-up!   In Okubo et al(8), they used both surface electrodes and intramuscular fine-wire to compare curl-ups, side planks, front planks, bridges, and bird dogs.  What they found was that the TrA was activated the greatest during front planks with opposite arm and leg raise and that multifidus activation was greatest with bridging.  Although core stabilization exercises should be performed in multiple planes of motion, these two studies highlight the enhanced activation that occurs during “face down” exercises such as front planks and roll outs.

The functional progression of exercises as well as training in all planes of motion are important aspects of OrthoWell’s core stabilization program. Our program will uncover your weaknesses and maximize your strength by progressing through successive levels of difficulty in all directions of movement ie anterior, posterior, lateral, and rotatory. Optimal development of the “local” system ie your functional neutral position and bracing technique(my last post) should occur before attempting to train the “global” or big muscle system.  Unfortunately, most people over-train the global system and need to be re-educated. So be patient as we take you by the “core” and steer you in the BEST, evidence-based direction.

The following videos are examples of some of our functional progressions for each plane of motion(sorry for the  occasional “sideways” view).  I demonstrate a particular exercise and then follow with an exercise of progressive difficulty. Functional progression is very individualized and requires skilled observation to determine competency.  Many thanks to two of my peers, Mike Reinold,PT and Eric Cressey for being very helpful in this regard.

Anterior Core Stabilization Exercises

Anterior/Posterior Core Stabilization Exercises

Posterior Core Stabilization Exercises

Lateral Core Stabilization Exercises

Rotatory Core Stabilization Exercises

1.  Allison GT, Mo4444rris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: Implications for core stability theories. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 228-237.

2. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Carp KC. Electromyographic analysis of core trunk, hip, and thigh muscles during 9 rehabilitation exercises. JOSPT. 2007; 37: 754-762.

3. Escamilla RF, Babb E, Dewitt R. Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: Implications for rehabilitation and training. Physical Therapy. 2006; 86: 656-671.

4. Faries MD, Greenwood M. Core Training: Stabilizing the Confusion. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2007; 29: 10-25.

5. Hall L, Tsao H, MacDonald D. Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2007; 19:763-773.

6. Hides J, Stanton W, McMahon S. Effect of stabilization training of multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 101-108.

7. Hodges P, Kaigle A, Holm S. Intervertebral stiffness of the spine is increased by evoked contraction of transversus abdominis and the diaphragm: In Vivo porcine studies. SPINE. 2003; 28: 2594-2601.

8. Okubo Y, Kaneoka K, Imai A. Electromyographic analysis of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus using wire electrodes during lumbar stabilization exercises. JOSPT. 2010; 40: 743-750.

9. Stanford M. Effectiveness of specific lumbar stabilization exercises: A single case study. Journal of Manual and Manipulation Therapy. 2002; 10: 40-46.

10. Critchley, D. Instructing pelvic floor contraction facilitates transversus abdominis thickness increase during low-abdominal hollowing. Physiother. Res.Int. 7:65–75. 2002.

11. Kavic, N., S. Grenier,  S.M. McGill. Determining the stabilizing role of individual torso muscles during rehabilitation exercises. Spine. 29:1254–1265. 2004a.

 

Low Back Pain -Part 2- Getting Down To The “CORE”

Getting down to the CORE!!

What is your Core?

It is defined as the center or “core” of your body.  It is the “powerhouse” around which all limb movement is performed. It consists of 29 pairs of muscles as well as boney, ligamentous, and discs structures that support the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex in order to stabilize the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain during functional movements.  In short, it’s pretty important!

 What is the function of the Core?

The core functions to provide both stability and mobility.  It can generate forces in order to complete a sit-up as well as provide spinal stability as you reach your arms overhead.  The muscles that are most important in providing core stability can be divided into two groups:  the primary stabilizers and the secondary stabilizers.  The primary stabilizers are the transversus abdominis in the deep abdominal region and the multifidus muscles which are deep in your back and attach directly to each vertebrae in the spine.  The secondary stabilizers are the obliques in the front, the quadratus lumborum & lumbar paraspinals in the back, the pelvic floor muscles at the bottom, and the diaphragm at the top.

So what does the research say about the Core muscles?

Current research has promoted the transversus abdominis (TrA) and the multifidus as the primary stabilizers of the spine.(1,4,6,8,9)  The TrA is the deepest of the abdominal muscles and, when contracted, it increases tension of the thoraco-lumbar fascia, it increases intra-abdominal pressure, and increases spinal stiffness in order to resist the forces that act upon the spine(4,7) The multifidi span from 1 to 3 vertebral levels and attach one vertebrae directly to another.  As a result, they provide the largest contribution to inter-segmental stability.(4,9) The TrA and multifidus have been found to activate prior to limb movement in order to prepare and stabilize the spine(1,4,9) and it has been shown that the EMG activity of the TrA may be delayed in patients suffering with chronic low back pain (LBP).(7)  The TrA is activated regardless of the direction of trunk or limb movement(4) and this is the reason why performing spinal stabilization exercises in multiple planes of motion can be so effective. A significant reduction in the cross-sectional area ie atrophy of the multifidi as well as poor motor control of the TrA has been associated with patients with acute or chronic LBP.(6.9) Patients with LBP who did not receive exercises specific for the multifidi continued to have atrophy of the multifidi even after 6 weeks of being painfree as compared to the increases in multifidi cross-sectional area in those that performed the exercises.(6,9)  In other words, just because your pain is gone does not mean that your muscles are functionally recovered.  One of our primary objectives in physical therapy is to prevent FUTURE episodes of LBP!  So how do we do it?

How do we test the Core?

Unfortunately, there is not a research-proven, valid testing regimen for core stability.  However, Shirley Sahrmann has proposed a test called the Sahrmann Core Stability Test which is the most common test of function.  It involves the use of a pressure cuff placed under the lumbar spine to measure one’s ability to maintain pelvic neutral while performing five exercises of progressive difficulty.  The chart is included below.

 

How do we perform spinal stabilization exercises?

In physical therapy, we utilize the concept of a neutral spine while performing spinal stabilization exercises.  Every joint has what we call a  “resting” or “open-packed position”. It is the position of a joint when the joint spacing is maximized and the resistance from boney or ligamentous structures is the least. These are the fundamentals of Orthopedic Manual Therapy.  In the following video, we will review the concept of the Functional Neutral Position as well describe how to activate the transverses abdominus and multifidi muscles in mutiple positions.

 

 

NEXT POST:

So what are the BEST evidence-based, core stabilization exercises? 

 

1.  Allison GT, Morris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: Implications for core stability theories. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 228-237.

2. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Carp KC. Electromyographic analysis of core trunk, hip, and thigh muscles during 9 rehabilitation exercises. JOSPT. 2007; 37: 754-762.

3. Escamilla RF, Babb E, Dewitt R. Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: Implications for rehabilitation and training. Physical Therapy. 2006; 86: 656-671.

4. Faries MD, Greenwood M. Core Training: Stabilizing the Confusion. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2007; 29: 10-25.

5. Hall L, Tsao H, MacDonald D. Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2007; 19:763-773.

6. Hides J, Stanton W, McMahon S. Effect of stabilization training of multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 101-108.

7. Hodges P, Kaigle A, Holm S. Intervertebral stiffness of the spine is increased by evoked contraction of transversus abdominis and the diaphragm: In Vivo porcine studies. SPINE. 2003; 28: 2594-2601.

8. Okubo Y, Kaneoka K, Imai A. Electromyographic analysis of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus using wire electrodes during lumbar stabilization exercises. JOSPT. 2010; 40: 743-750.

9. Stanford M. Effectiveness of specific lumbar stabilization exercises: A single case study. Journal of Manual and Manipulation Therapy. 2002; 10: 40-46.