Low Back Pain – Part 3 – BEST Evidence-Based Core Exercises!
So what are the BEST evidence-based Core exercises?
Evidence from random controlled trials of people suffering from low back pain show that core stabilization exercises result in significant improvements in pain and function(5,7) . However, the most effective combination of which muscles to target and which stabilization methods to utilize are still debated(1-11). One technique that has been suggested is abdominal hallowing or “drawing-in” your navel to activate the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle. This technique has been shown to increase the cross-sectional area of the TrA(10), however, many exercise scientists are now advocating a method called “abdominal bracing”(demonstrated in my last post) in which ALL the abdominal muscles are recruited instead of just one(11). It should be the goal of core exercises to activate as many torso muscles as possible in order to ensure spinal stability and to prepare our bodies for the dynamic and often complex movements that occur during our daily activities. So what does the research say about which exercises activate which muscles the best?
Numerous studies have used EMG to determine the greatest electrical activity of torso muscles during various core stabilization exercises. In Escamilla et al(3), they used surface or skin electrodes to compare exercises such as traditional crunches, sit-ups, reverse crunches, and hanging knee-ups using straps to exercises using an Ab Roller/ Power Wheel and a device called the Ab Revolutionizer. What they found was that the activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominis(the “washboard” muscle) as well as both the internal and external obliques was the greatest with Power Wheel roll-outs and hanging knee-ups with straps. Because research indicates that the internal obliques are activated in the same manner(within 15%) as the tranversus abdominis(3), we can assume that these results apply to the TrA as well. The activation was least with a traditional sit-up! In Okubo et al(8), they used both surface electrodes and intramuscular fine-wire to compare curl-ups, side planks, front planks, bridges, and bird dogs. What they found was that the TrA was activated the greatest during front planks with opposite arm and leg raise and that multifidus activation was greatest with bridging. Although core stabilization exercises should be performed in multiple planes of motion, these two studies highlight the enhanced activation that occurs during “face down” exercises such as front planks and roll outs.
The functional progression of exercises as well as training in all planes of motion are important aspects of OrthoWell’s core stabilization program. Our program will uncover your weaknesses and maximize your strength by progressing through successive levels of difficulty in all directions of movement ie anterior, posterior, lateral, and rotatory. Optimal development of the “local” system ie your functional neutral position and bracing technique(my last post) should occur before attempting to train the “global” or big muscle system. Unfortunately, most people over-train the global system and need to be re-educated. So be patient as we take you by the “core” and steer you in the BEST, evidence-based direction.
The following videos are examples of some of our functional progressions for each plane of motion(sorry for the occasional “sideways” view). I demonstrate a particular exercise and then follow with an exercise of progressive difficulty. Functional progression is very individualized and requires skilled observation to determine competency. Many thanks to two of my peers, Mike Reinold,PT and Eric Cressey for being very helpful in this regard.
Anterior Core Stabilization Exercises
Anterior/Posterior Core Stabilization Exercises
Posterior Core Stabilization Exercises
Lateral Core Stabilization Exercises
Rotatory Core Stabilization Exercises
1. Allison GT, Mo4444rris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: Implications for core stability theories. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 228-237.
2. Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Carp KC. Electromyographic analysis of core trunk, hip, and thigh muscles during 9 rehabilitation exercises. JOSPT. 2007; 37: 754-762.
3. Escamilla RF, Babb E, Dewitt R. Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: Implications for rehabilitation and training. Physical Therapy. 2006; 86: 656-671.
4. Faries MD, Greenwood M. Core Training: Stabilizing the Confusion. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2007; 29: 10-25.
5. Hall L, Tsao H, MacDonald D. Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2007; 19:763-773.
6. Hides J, Stanton W, McMahon S. Effect of stabilization training of multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 101-108.
7. Hodges P, Kaigle A, Holm S. Intervertebral stiffness of the spine is increased by evoked contraction of transversus abdominis and the diaphragm: In Vivo porcine studies. SPINE. 2003; 28: 2594-2601.
8. Okubo Y, Kaneoka K, Imai A. Electromyographic analysis of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus using wire electrodes during lumbar stabilization exercises. JOSPT. 2010; 40: 743-750.
9. Stanford M. Effectiveness of specific lumbar stabilization exercises: A single case study. Journal of Manual and Manipulation Therapy. 2002; 10: 40-46.
10. Critchley, D. Instructing pelvic floor contraction facilitates transversus abdominis thickness increase during low-abdominal hollowing. Physiother. Res.Int. 7:65–75. 2002.
11. Kavic, N., S. Grenier, S.M. McGill. Determining the stabilizing role of individual torso muscles during rehabilitation exercises. Spine. 29:1254–1265. 2004a.